London

John Faraday lives in the leafy suburbs of (Stoke Poges) Slough which is part of Buckinghamshire.

Working and commuting in London but preferred the quite peaceful dwellings in Stoke Poges.

John Faraday weekly travelling into London has been ongoing for over 20 years.

London (/ˈlʌndən/ ( listen) LUN-dən) is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.[8][9] Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. It was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium.[10] London’s ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1.12-square-mile (2.9 km2) medieval boundaries. Since at least the 19th century, “London” has also referred to the metropolis around this core, historically split between Middlesex, Essex, Surrey, Kent and Hertfordshire,[11][12][13] which today largely makes up Greater London,[14][15][note 1] a region governed by the Mayor of London and the London Assembly.[16][note 2][17

London is a leading global city[18][19] in the arts, commerce, education, entertainment, fashion, finance, healthcare, media, professional services, research and development, tourism and transportation.[20][21][22] It is the world’s largest financial centre[23][24][25][26] and has the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP in the world.[note 3][27][28] London is often regarded as a world cultural capital.[29][30][31] It is the world’s most-visited city as measured by international arrivals[32] and has the world’s largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic.[33] It is the world’s leading investment destination,[34][35][36][37] hosting more international retailers[38][39] and ultra high-net-worth individuals[40][41] than any other city. London’s universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe.[42] In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted the modern Summer Olympic Games three times.[43]

London has a diverse range of people and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken in the region.[44] Its estimated mid-2016 municipal population (corresponding to Greater London) was 8,787,892,[4] the largest of any city in the European Union[45] and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population.[46] London’s urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.[47] The city’s metropolitan area is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016,[note 4][3] while the Greater London Authority states the population of the city-region (covering a large part of the south east) as 22.7 million.[48][49] London was the world’s most populous city from around 1831 to 1925.[50]

London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London; Kew Gardens; the site comprising the Palace of Westminster, Westminster Abbey, and St Margaret’s Church; and the historic settlement of Greenwich (in which the Royal Observatory, Greenwich defines the Prime Meridian, 0° longitude, and GMT).[51] Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul’s Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London is home to numerous museums, galleries, libraries, sporting events and other cultural institutions, including the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres.[52] The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world

The etymology of London is uncertain.[53] It is an ancient name, attested already in the first century AD, usually in the Latinised form Londinium;[53] for example, handwritten Roman tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70-80 include the word Londinio (“in London”).[54]

Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations. The earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth’s Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136.[53] This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.[55]

Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin (usually Londinium), Old English (usually Lunden), and Welsh (usually Llundein), with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed that the name came into these languages from Common Brythonic; recent work tends to reconstruct the lost Celtic form of the name as *[Londonjon] or something similar. This was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into West Germanic, the ancestor-language of English, before English had become widely spoken in what later became England.[56]

The etymology and original meaning of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates’s 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *(p)lowonida, meaning “river too wide to ford”. Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London; from this, the settlement gained the Celtic form of its name, *Lowonidonjon.[57] However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, and recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of an proto-Indo-European root *lendh (‘sink, cause to sink’), combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo– or *-onjo– (used to form place-names). Peter Schrijver has specifically suggested, on these grounds, that the name originally meant ‘place that floods (periodically, tidally)’.[58][56]

Until 1889, the name “London” officially applied only to the City of London, but since then it has also referred to the County of London and now to Greater London.[59]

“London” is sometimes abbreviated as “L’don” or “LDN”.[60]

History

Main articles: History of London and Timeline of London

Prehistory

Two recent discoveries indicate probable very early settlements near the Thames in the London area. In 1999, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge.[61] This bridge either crossed the Thames or reached a now lost island in it. Dendrochronology dated the timbers to ca. 1500 BC.[61] In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to ca. 4500 BC, were found on the Thames foreshore, south of Vauxhall Bridge.[62] The function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank, at a natural crossing point where the River Effra flows into the Thames.[62]

Roman London

In 1300, the City was still confined within the Roman walls

Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years[1] after the invasion of AD 43.[63] This lasted only until around AD 61, when the Iceni tribe led by Queen Boudica stormed it, burning it to the ground.[64] The next, heavily planned, incarnation of Londinium prospered, and it superseded Colchester as the capital of the Roman province of Britannia in 100. At its height in the 2nd century, Roman London had a population of around 60,000.[65]